ISSN 2477-1686

Vol.4. No.7, April 2018 

Pengaruh Micro-Transaction di Game Mobile Legend Terhadap Perkembangan Remaja dalam Isu Konsumerisme

Oleh

Irene Evita

Universitas Bunda Mulia

Juara II Lomba PsychoPaper Psychology Village 9

Perilaku remaja dalam menggunakan uang perlu diperhatikan. Pengambilan keputusan dalam berbelanja dan persepsi akan kebutuhan yang buruk saat masa remaja dapat memprediksi bagaimana gaya hidup dan alur perekonomian di masa depan mereka. Di dalam sosialisasi ekonomi (Roland-Lévy dalam Marshall, 2009), individu memerlukan kompetensi untuk menghadapi dunia ekonomi, dimana kompetensi tersebut didapatkan dari pengalaman remaja menggunakan uang untuk membeli produk, sehingga mereka akan belajar mengenai pentingnya mempertimbangkan anggaran yang dimiliki. Remaja masa kini dipengaruhi oleh pentingnya suatu brand terhadap identitas dan citra diri, sehingga pikiran mereka dikendalikan oleh produk yang memiliki efek mendalam di lingkungan sekitar, yang dapat membuat mereka meningkatkan pengeluaran. Individu dengan sifat materialistis yang kuat biasanya memiliki orientasi tujuan yang dapat menyebabkan penurunan kesejahteraan menuju kemiskinan. Hal tersebut menunjukkan keterkaitan konsumerisme dan  kesejahteraan individu (Kasser dan Kanner, 2004). Remaja berumur 12-18 tahun sedang berada dalam tahap pembentukan perkembangan kognitif yang masih dapat berubah-ubah, hingga pada akhirnya menjadi perkembangan kognitif yang positif atau negatif, arah perkembangan tersebut akan memberikan pengaruh besar pada dewasa nanti. Hal ini sesuai dengan teori perkembangan kognitif remaja (Elkind dalam Papalia, Olds dan Feldman, 2009) yakni karakteristik pemikiran remaja sedang berkembang namun belum matang, sementara itu, kematangan kognitif yang memadai diperlukan untuk pengambilan keputusan dan pemrosesan orang dewasa.

Minat game online pada remaja

Remaja di tengah kesibukan dan kepenatannya sebagai pelajar membutuhkan minat yang dapat memicu semangat mereka. Video game memiliki daya tarik yaitu (1) struktur lingkungan game yang didesain untuk bersosialisasi, (2) kesenangan dari fantasi yang dihasilkan dan (3) peran dengan tujuan yang jelas (Eisenbeiss dalam Hota, 2016). Manfaat bermain game online bagi pemainnya adalah memperbaiki suasana hati dari semangat dan kesenangan yang didapat ketika bermain game.

Game online yang free-to-play (gratis untuk dimainkan) mulai berkembang dari awal tahun 2000-an dan mengalami perkembangan pesat hingga sekarang. Model bisnis yang digunakan dalam game free-to-play adalah micro-transaction. Berbeda dengan premium game yang membayar pembelian game tanpa biaya tambahan selanjutnya, micro-transaction adalah transaksi yang digunakan untuk membeli suatu barang virtual dalam game online dengan menggunakan uang asli, dengan jumlah uang relatif kecil namun intensitas transaksinya tergolong tinggi. Salah satunya adalah Multiplayer Online Battle Arena (MOBA), yakni video game beraliran aksi-strategi dimana pemain mengontrol karakter tunggal, kemudian membentuk tim kecil yang akan berada dalam pertempuran virtual melawan tim lain dan dilakukan secara berulang. Judul permainan MOBA yang sedang populer di kalangan remaja Indonesia adalah Mobile Legend. Berdasarkan hasil wawancara yang penulis lakukan terhadap 3 laki-laki dan 3 perempuan di Jabodetabek yang berusia remaja, semuanya memilih Mobile Legend sebagai game MOBA untuk dimainkan karena konsep sederhana namun menarik, ingin mencoba game yang populer, ingin mencoba game dari iklan di aplikasi lain, ada juga yang karena di game MOBA semua sama-sama berjuang dari nol sehingga menimbulkan pemikiran bahwa siapapun mempunyai kesempatan menang yang sama, dan mendapat rekomendasi dari saudara kandung. Para subjek melakukan transaksi sebanyak 1-6 kali dalam sebulan. Pengeluaran terendah adalah Rp. 3000 untuk membeli 11 diamond (mata uang virtual di Mobile Legend). Paling tinggi adalah Rp.500.000 untuk membeli skin (pelengkap karakter yang disertai atribut tambahan) dan gift ke teman.

Berdasarkan hasil wawancara, micro-transaction disikapi secara berbeda oleh beberapa pemain. Ada golongan pemain yang berpikir cukup lama sebelum membeli barang-barang virtual dalam game dengan uang mereka, namun di sisi lain, ada juga pemain yang dengan mudah mengeluarkan uang mereka untuk membeli barang-barang virtual tersebut karena mereka merasa masih didukung secara finansial oleh orang tua mereka. Namun transaksi tertentu yang memakan jumlah cukup besar membuat barang lebih penting harus diundur pembeliannya.

Pada akhirnya para subjek tetap melakukan micro-transaction karena banyak teman sekelas yang memainkannya. Hal ini berkaitan dengan teori kebutuhan (Maslow dalam Papalia, Olds dan Feldman, 2009) bahwa manusia memiliki kebutuhan akan rasa memiliki dan kasih sayang, sehingga cenderung mencari hubungan yang mendalam dengan orang lain dan merasa senang jika diterima serta dibutuhkan dalam kelompok sosial tersebut. Selain itu, dalam kebutuhan akan esteem, individu membutuhkan perasaan yang positif terhadap diri sendiri dan membutuhkan rasa percaya kalau orang lain juga merasa positif terhadapnya. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan-kebutuhan tersebut, individu berjuang untuk mendapatkan pencapaian, pengakuan, apresiasi dan gengsi dari lingkungan. Hal itu memotivasi untuk memainkan game yang dimainkan orang lain dan melakukan micro-transaction yang membuat karakter virtualnya tampak kuat juga menarik serta menambah rasa percaya diri saat bermain, sehingga mendapatkan pengakuan dan apresiasi dari sesama pemain.

Remaja dalam tahap mencari identitas

Remaja pada masa sekolah menengah atas sedang berada dalam tahap pencarian identitas (Erikson dalam Papalia, Olds dan Feldman, 2009). Dalam masa pencarian identitas, mereka membutuhkan peran yang dapat dipakai untuk bersosialiasi sehingga mereka dapat memiliki peran yang dipandang dalam pertemanan, jika tidak mendapatkan peran tersebut mereka akan merasa inferior.

Beberapa subjek mengatakan micro-transaction membantu kemajuan dalam bermain game dan membuat karakter mereka semakin menarik, sehingga karakter mereka pun akan mendapat pengakuan dari temannya yang bermain dan hal tersebut menimbulkan rasa bangga serta memuaskan kebutuhan mereka akan rasa dicintai dan esteem mereka. Dari sini, terjadilah proses belajar dari pengalaman akan kepuasaan tersebut yang selanjutnya memotivasi dan membuat mereka berpikir jika melakukan perbuatan yang sama akan mendapat efek positif seperti sebelumnya. Hal ini membuat mereka melakukan pengulangan micro-transaction dalam game. Hal ini sesuai dengan konsep Law of Effect (Thorndike dalam Ormrod, 2012) bahwa sebuah perilaku yang disertai dengan konsekuensi yang menyenangkan akan cenderung diulang.

Jika kebiasaan micro-transaction dilakukan secara berulang, hal ini dikhawatirkan dapat memengaruhi cara pandang mereka tentang pemuasan diri. Ketika remaja terbiasa memenuhi keinginannya dengan menggunakan uang secara terus-menerus, maka terbentuklah konsumerisme dalam diri mereka. Konsumerisme adalah sebuah ideologi yang menjadikan seseorang atau sekolompok orang melakukan proses konsumsi atau pemakaian berlebihan (Oxford English Dictionary, 1960). Konsumerisme merupakan isu penting dalam kehidupan remaja, di mana memberikan dampak negatif yang akan dibawa sampai dengan masa dewasa mereka. Salah satu dampak konsumerisme berdasarkan studi dari Gbadamosi (2016), yaitu responden melihat diri mereka dalam opsi terbatas, yang menyebabkan mereka melihat pembayaran finansial melalui hutang sebagai pilihan yang layak, yang mereka lakukan demi mendapatkan pengakuan sosial dan kepuasan dalam hidup. Konsumerisme menjadi faktor yang memicu niat mereka untuk mendapatkan pinjaman yang dapat mengarahkan mereka pada ketidakbahagiaan.

Dalam wawancara, beberapa subjek mengatakan “Karena tidak pasti menang makanya belum tentu pay-to-win” (CA, 17), “Mobile Legends tidak pay-to-win, karena skill adalah hal yang paling utama” (FR, 16). Micro-transaction dilakukan untuk membuat karakter semakin menarik dan mendapatkan peningkatan kekuatan dari atribut tambahan. Namun jumlah kekuatan yang didapatkan tidak sangat besar sehingga keunggulan pemain yang melakukan transaksi dan tidak melakukan transaksi bisa saja menjadi tak berbeda jauh. Dibutuhkan strategi pembelian agar mendapat item yang dapat membantu perkembangan game. Jika tak dapat melakukan transaksi dengan pemikiran dan pilihan yang tepat maka manfaat micro-transaction dalam game menjadi tidak terlalu berperan. Pada akhirnya semua kembali pada skill atau kemampuan bermain game sehingga dapat disimpulkan bahwa sistem pay-to-win (membayar untuk menang) tak benar-benar berlaku sesuai konsepnya sehingga micro-transaction tak terlalu perlu dilakukan.

Ada pepatah “Sedikit-sedikit lama menjadi bukit”, ketika intensitas micro-transaction tinggi, ia akan memiliki pengaruh yang besar bukan lagi kecil. Pembelajaran memuaskan diri yang menjadi kebiasaan buruk dikhawatirkan dapat mengarahkan remaja pada alur perekonomian mereka di masa depan yang tidak menunjang, disebabkan oleh konsumerisme yang diikuti hedonisme dan materialisme. Mengingat kuranglah bijak jika berinvestasi pada micro-transaction seperti itu, diperlukan pengawasan agar perkembangan kognitif remaja menuju ke arah positif bukan negatif, agar wawasan remaja terbuka pada pemikiran jangka panjang dan pengontrolan diri. Diharapkan pengasuh (orangtua dan guru) memahami motivasi mereka dan menemukan metode terbaik untuk mencegah dampak konsumerisme merajalela dalam diri remaja di usia dini. Di masa depan, semakin beranjak anak menuju dewasa, mereka harus menjadi manusia mandiri, tanpa dukungan keuangan dari orangtua melainkan menggunakan keuangan sendiri. 

Referensi

Gbadamosi, Ayantuji. (2016). Handbook of research on consumerism and buying behavior in developing nations. Hershey: Business Science Reference.

Hota, Monali & Derbaix, Maud. (2016). A real child in a virtual world: Exploring whether children’s participation in MMORPGs transforms them into virtual retail shoppers. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 44(11), pp. 1132-1148.

Kasser, Tim & Kanner, A. D. (2004). Psychology and consumer culture: The struggle for a good life in a materialistic world. London: American Psychological Association.

Ormrod, J. E. (2012). Human learning. NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Consumerism. (2013). In Oxford Dictionaries.com. Retrieved from http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/consumerism

Papalia, D. E., Olds, S. W., & Feldman, R. D. (2009). Human development. NY: McGraw-Hill.

Roland-Levy, C. Children and money. (2009). In: Marshall, D., editor. Understanding Children as Consumers. London: Sage; 2010. pp. 149-164.

 

 

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